Loss and damage refers to the adverse effects of climate-related stressors on natural and human systems that cannot be, or have not been, avoided through mitigation or managed through adaptation efforts. To date, studies of loss and damage have focused primarily on human systems and tended to overlook the mediating role of ecosystems and the services ecosystems provide to society. This results in a serious knowledge gap.

Climate-induced loss and damage to human systems may result from permanent or temporary effects of climatic stressors on ecosystems and the services they provide. More information is needed.

Indeed, the Paris Agreement urges Parties to enhance understanding, action and support in areas such as, “Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems”. Therefore this report tries to advance understanding of climatic stressor effects on ecosystems and possible correlations and implications for societal losses and damages.

Five case studies from Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America are used to illustrate effects through real world examples, covering a range of climatic stressors, such as drought, floods, heat waves, and cyclones. Several of the case studies describe extreme events which appear to have been made more likely due to climate change, and events of this nature may be more likely as climate change intensifies.